Surveying and Training Future leaders in Organizations
Author: Mohsen Lasemi
Publisher: Nazari Publications
Year of publishing: 2015
Subject: Non-fiction (Management)
No. of Pages: 368
◙ Sample English text is available.
◙The book was welcomed in academic centers in Iran and abroad.
◙ Functional modeling capabilities in managing organizations and training capable managers.
◙ Ability to use as a reliable source in research and concerned academic centers.
About the book:
Developing and improving of executive managers’ functionality by using modern methods not only increases the improving activities in organizations but also by recognition of potential and dynamic deserved and skillful human powers in organizations, can be effective in discovering and flourishing of managerial talents and can instruct them as future examples of organizations. The book of ‘Surveying and Training Future leaders in Organizations’ by pointing out to some new developing managerial strategies and improving of human resources functionality in organizations deals with specialized characteristics of designing and realizing of improving executive mangers program as a novel managerial approach. Presented data in this book are based on extensive studies on many available managerial strategies in reliable research centers and successful organizations in empowering human resources. This book by pointing to some managerial strategies related to designing and realizing of improving executive mangers program tries to explain some the characteristic of implementing of improving executive mangers program in initial stages of establishing in an organization. These characteristics, by increasing the level of organizations abilities can cause society development and improving of updated functionalities of organizations in the change in all executive organizational bodies.
The book of ‘Surveying and Training Future leaders in Organizations’ is written in 17 chapters and 59 titles and in its compiling reliable scientific resources such as some law and obligations of developing human resources in Iran and used patterns in IBM, Sony companies are utilized. This book as an influential scientific resource in the fields of programming and developing of human resources capacity is welcomed by Iran scientific and research centers. This book by having innovation in strategic programming and increasing the abilities of executive managers in service and industrial complexes can be used by all industrial centers and research and strategic studies of human resources centers and developing management programs throughout the world.
About the Author:
Mohsen Lasemi is educated in operational management from IS-IRAN education and research Institute that has completed his postgraduate courses in the field of quality management systems and realization of organizational co-efficiency-increasing models in reliable educational and researching centers of Iran. He has a 25 year record of consulting, managing and designing projects in the fields of designing and implementation of organizational co-efficiency-increasing models in industrial complexes and some executive companies and spending more than twenty thousand hours of specialized courses related to compiling works, writing articles and managing and conducting great projects of Iran. Lasemi is an Iranian resourceful and active writer and researcher that besides his researches, lectures and educational activities, he has written many valuable, scientific books and articles that have been welcomed and used by most academic and reliable industrial and scientific centers of Iran and other countries like: America, Japan, Taiwan, Indiana and some other countries. He has been appreciated for such academic activities of him in various occasions in Iran and other international assemblies.
Now, Mohsen Lasemi during his continuous activities in the fields of research and presenting articles in different scientific and academic centers of Iran and other countries, is compiling and publishing some books in designing and constructing in-organization problem-solving clinics, innovation (creativity) engineering and new distribution of motivation rewards in organizations. He also in some reliable industrial and service companies in Iran undertakes the responsibility of designing and managing some important improving projects. Lasemi is married and lives with his wife and two children in Tehran.
Some of Lasemi’s Books:
-Surveying and Training Future leaders in Organizations
-Organizational reinforcements and developing patterns:
– Strategic programming and ORISE functionality management:
_The Plan of Great Path
_Engineering innovation (creativity) in the organization (strategic development plan creative powers of organization)
_The new system of the distribution of rewards to create motivation in organization (strategic development program to increase productivity)
_Application knowledge and information management program in organizations (the strategic program to plan and develop the knowledge repositories of the organization).
Chapter 1.Survey of applicants in a non-comparative structure
Assessment of mangers’ individualistic qualifications according to executive records
Assessment of mangers’ individualistic skills according to behavioral patterns
Assessment of mangers’ specialized skills according to specialized patterns
Assessment of mangers’ specialized and managerial perspectives
Assessment of mangers’ qualification based on standard job qualification pattern
Assessment and engineering of managers’ functionality according to standard patterns of jobs qualifications
1.1. Assessment of mangers’ individualistic qualifications according to executive records
Modern principles and method of management enables mangers to follow practical and logical methods in forms of morality, functional and innovations and to avoid from forming of decision making and execution processes in passive and non-programmed. There are many historical experiments in management in them people knowingly and unknowingly experienced managerial operative processes and through channels of designed methods of ‘problem-finding’, ‘problem-solving’ and ‘presenting solution’, they put into practice more logical and sensible options to reach to a closer consequences of the anticipated goals.
In evaluation of mangers’ individualistic qualifications according to their executive records, the emphasis is on knowledge, learning, assistance, teaching and supporting of execution of activities according to this saying of Imam Ali: ‘If you know something and not to put that into practice, it is nescience itself. The learned person without practice is ignorant and he is the claimant of differentiation. If science does not lead to practice, it is ignorance that is the cause of differentiation. Many a scholars and scientists that are killed by their ignorance as their sciences are not to their benefit.’ (Nahjolbalaghe, kalamateghesar (valuable words) 107, 274).
Skillful managers due to such knowledge can prevent the repetition of error and trial and they deeply believe in many managerial tools like programming, expansion of human resources, education and training, research and many determinative and influential strategies and use them in their own operation processes. Another valuable points in surveying the executive records of managers is the fact that they enjoy excellent functionality financial-wise for their organizations as they regularly find problems for the challenges and after setting the solution, move it forward by scheduling, organizing, supervision and control and they are always ready to face predicted changes in internal and external working atmospheres thus they take more informative decisions and inflicts less charges of probable risks to their organizations.
Among other capabilities of managers, I can refer to their anticipation and argumentation powers that internalize careful witnessing in their views in them and teach them to look at issues from different angles and for controlling of coordination of activities utilize realistically scientific and operative methods and minimize undesired effects and destructive changes.
In surveying of managers’ capabilities through reviewing of their executive records this important point has to be studied that how capable they are in solving problems through pondering and taking advantages of opportunities. Simple opportunities that by using a proper approach from managers can cause deep positive effects from one hand and prevent problems from the other hand. This is the point that is ignored in surveying managers’ capabilities mostly.
The other factor that in a structure of non-competitive evaluation in studying of managers’ characteristics and capabilities can be reviewed is managers’ executive records in different areas. By such reviewing, managers will be put in pre-designed frameworks that depict their functionalities after reviewing their strengths and short comings of them in previous years. These pictures of their functionalities represent their individualistic capabilities in management and its strategic ways in organizations. This approach can contain data about managers’ personalities, their capabilities in encountering problems and their way of managing them and finding solution for them, managers’ individualistic qualifications in programming and organizing and many clearing factors for studying managers.
One of the factors that should be taken into account in evaluation of mangers’ individualistic qualifications according to executive records in both previous managerial and non-managerial posts and even in check lists for applicants’ studying for appointing them as managers is the person’s (manager’s) strategic approaches of a picture of the organization he depicts in his mind. This picture describes a manager’s position in recognizing his surrounding factors, ways of his studying of the present situation and his (manager’s) design for operating of available opportunities in organizations against risks. Managers with suitable executive records mainly with less stress of facing problems since the time of entering an organization in addition to recognition of chances look at the managing of risks by means of chances and intelligently while designing strengths and faults of organization functionalities, they ponder about the best ways to encounter threats and changing them to chances.
In evaluation of mangers’ individualistic qualifications according to their executive records, each organization according to its decided characteristics in strategic programming and developing of its executive managers can use specific accepted criteria. These criteria can be of their own features in describing standards for evaluation of managers in different levels by considering sciences such as sociology, psychology of managers’ organizational behaviors, strategic programming, and strategic programming in financial resources of organizations, organization business communications, managing of organization assets like equipments, human resources and … . If these standers adjust themselves to set standards in organizations, they can lead to adoptable patterning between present situations of the organization and evaluation of managers’ resourcefulness and alongside with extracted data from reliable international standards in a specific industry they can enjoy valuable characteristics of a reliable internal standard.
Here, the point that worth attention is setting of standards for managers’ skillfulness and evaluation of their executive records in accordance with the set standards. These standards in the qualification frames for accepting managers in the evaluating checklists of managers are dealing with surveying of managers’ qualifications flexibilities and while studying the degree of distraction of managers’ functionalities according to the set pivotal qualifications, they analyze positive and negative points of managers’ functionalities. This approach needs strategic studies in comparing with set patterns in executive managers’ development program of an organization in the framework of a localized pattern of that organization.
2-1 Assessment of mangers’ individualistic skills according to behavioral patterns
Born in 1967 about interactive behavior theory expresses that each of us has a subconscious memories acquired them when we were very young from our parents. These memories left three states of ‘ego’ or ways of being in the present states in us. One of these states is the state of parent-like through which we recognize ourselves. This state deals with mental judgments (critic parent state) and taking care of oneself (cherishing parent state). The other state is mature state in which a part of us in a symbolic way characterized outside us and deals with data. The last one is child state. This is the state we had in our childhood. Our ‘natural’ and ‘free’ child is creative and active while in us there is a rebellious child that is in contrast with adjusted states of parent and child that desire to do something for the pleasure of parent state. These three states of ‘ego’ can depict different effects and roles in human, roles that can put people in different situations with special behavioral characteristics. Similarly, in managers also like other humans these factors indifferent situations can depict different effects and consequences.
Considering all these characteristics in a human that managers are not exceptions from them, here I survey some other human or managers’ of organizations behavioral characteristics. Everybody has the thinking and recognition powers and is capable of his inner innovation and mental powers. This human characteristic according to the level of using it and its strengthening as a mental pattern, which can be different in different stages of human life, has the manifestation capacity in human being and can appear its effects like material extracted from a rich mine (grey cortex of human brain).
People based on enriching and operating their grey cortex of their brains has different features of functionality. Some by recognizing such God-given asset and its enriching in serving their societies and flourishing their minds could offer products in forms of discoveries, innovations and inventions and others used such capabilities in an different and more limited way.
Managers in organizations not only has such God-given capability but also due to operating from experiences during executing missions at managerial levels or at other positions, in operating of this enriched-with-experiences asset enjoy special characteristics for utilizing it.
In evaluation and assessing individualistic skills of managers based on designed behavioral patterns in a model of evaluating of individualistic skills, one of the characteristics that draw the attention of researchers to itself is the evaluation of mangers’ mental skills that it can be taken into account in accordance with designed special accepting standards in an organization. Other factors in evaluation and assessing individualistic skills of managers that became the center of many scholars attention is the degree of managers’ mastery in operating from leading skills in an organization. This skill deals with managers’ capabilities as an instructor or functionality conductor and other factors pertaining to leader characteristics in an organization. Organizing and programming skills, communicative and cognitive skills and managers’ individual skills in programming, conducting and cooperation in group (social) activities are among other skills that can be mentioned in evaluating of an organization managers.
These skills are formed from managers thinking in forming a strategy in an organization and leads to the assessing the essence of managers in recognizing of strategic opportunities and taking suitable strategic decisions in encountering challenges. Capable managers are those that by concentrating on strategic programming design a perspective for their organizations with the approach of expanding available capacities and by operating suitable programming methods, conducting, supervising and instructing the functionality, manage all executive bodies of the organization toward operating and utilizing available opportunities to the organization development.
In evaluating and training future leaders, the approach to human resources expansion in an organization is formed in a way that cannot limit this program to expansive executive managers of the organization and can form in other expansive programming axis of human resource. This approach can be create suitable situations for expansion of would-be managerial capacity in the organization in executive programming in the fields of recognizing, assessing and programming of managerial talents of an organization. Recognizing and expanding of organizations managerial capacities are formed at first by holding specialized tests of evaluating and recognizing of the organization managerial talents and then by programming for the expansion of the organization managerial capacities among qualified applicants for managerial positions.
In evaluating and training program of would-be managers, evaluating of behavioral patterns has its own characteristics that can be operated according to the form of missions in the organization in a distinctive form. In this programming, all patterns all evaluating patterns in a different way in the frame of accepting standards of assessing behavioral patterns with the approach of model designing of assessing mental abilities, conceptual skills, planning and organizing skills, Leadership skills, teamwork skills are being taken into consideration.
3.1. Assessment and assessing of managers’ specialized qualifications according to specialized patterns
In assessing specialized qualifications, managers and applicants for managerial positions are evaluated based on specific characteristics of each field (set in each specific field). In this approach for evaluating that is based on the degree of familiarity with specialized bases and concepts of each managerial post, evaluating team when surveying managers’ executive records, by using of extracted data from the assessing of managers/ applicants in a non-competitive program and surveying the data extracted from managers’ behavioral patterns with an approach of studying each manager’s capabilities deals with surveying of managers’ qualifications in comparison with designed patterns for evaluating managers’ qualifications in their positions.
Among prerequisites taken into consideration in this program are the designing specialized patterns of managers’ qualifications with the perspective to each job skills and specifications that their qualifications are determined in the form of specialized standards for determining each job managerial position in organizations.
Specialized pattern standards in jobs qualifications are among standards that each organization according to the job characteristics and designed international standards related to that job and surrounding atmosphere in an organization with an approach to train specialized courses and requisitions needed for each position. These standards that are also known as job qualification standards are data designed by designers of qualification and competence patterns in organizations by utilizing reliable resources and can be used in the program of evaluation of managers’ specialized skills.
To make the respectful addresses familiar with how qualification pattern standards are designed, I have to refer to the following examples. One of the best examples of such pattern standards is for the airline pilots that are the result of surveying pattern standards in behavioral and specialized evaluation of pilots in aviation that are set based on designed acceptance criteria of international reference standards of aviation and organizational localized patterns of airlines in a form of a localized model as pilot qualification standards. Captain standards are another example of such standards in the industry of navigation that the job also has its own specialized standards in the area of qualification.
Accordingly, all organizational jobs in different service, industrial, productive and other complexes include job qualification standards. These standards determine the required qualifications for a job position and deal with the characteristics of applicants to be appointed for that position and survey behavioral and specialized patterns of applicants’ functionalities and their characteristics in different forms.
These standards especially in managerial positions of organizations, while evaluating employee’s individualistic qualifications in the process of assessing managers’ specialized skills and competences, can depict the faults and strengths of managers’ functionalities alongside the surveying of the level of qualifications in the standard and can cause programming and manipulation of executive program of expansion of managers with the approach of operating of qualification standards of managerial positions in organizations. (Later while surveying the qualification approaches, operating ways of in question standards are dealt with more.)
4-1- Assessment of managerial and specialized approaches of managers
Managers’ approaches in practice must satisfy their behavioral motivations and leads to responses that indirectly make him and others satisfied as managers’ approaches themselves are resulted from operating their value systems of all cited factors and appear their characteristics. If these individualistic values are not there, their approaches gradually decrease and it clarifies his unclear understanding of managerial methods resulted from the ambiguity and non-justifiableness of his illogical managerial actions and behaviors and picture him as a person whose ideas are unpractical, complex and vague.
Among the factors that are considered impotent in the evaluation of managerial approaches is the closeness of managers’ ideas with their mental hypothesis. These ideas can be the result of mangers personal experiences in encountering issues of their approaches of operating problem solving. Such ideas and opinions are accepted in a natural way easier and show that managers’ general assumptions are placed in his mental perspectives and in a form of a mental map that is dependent on a general plan and dynamic activity that enabled them to explain and define their general relationships between people, groups and products well and enjoyed and established thoughtful background and approaches. These approaches are on the bases organizing adopted to coexistence of scientific and communicative recognitions.
In the managers’ specialized and managerial approaches, the more extended and deeper the managers’ make their approaches and deal more with issues pertaining to things, groups, organizations, events and philosophical, political, economic, social and cultural issues, the more complete their insights and side-takings will be and they can protect themselves from placing themselves in ambiguity, dominant dogmatism and attritional analysis, personal likes and dislikes, narcissism, etc.
The deeper managers’ approach tools and less dependent to external positions and situations, the more authentic and real picture they present. For example, a manager’s belief in the influence of the science of management in the human’s life, processing, necessity of deep thinking in making decisions and programming are of approaches that create capability in managers. In order to institutionalization such approaches in managers, we have to set characteristics that are formed in his mentality and are reflected in his functionality and can be evaluated and assessed. These reflections depends on managers’ professional and specialized viewpoint to his direct and indirect observations, objective assessment of their learned material, experiences, tests, experiments, error and trials, relatively stable systematizing in behavior, awareness in data analyses, speed in operating skills, observing beliefs in main approaches, prioritizing of major approaches over the minor ones and many other factors.
In evaluating the managers’ approaches in a program for evaluating and training would-be managers many tools can be operated. Among such tools, strategic programming and ORISE functionality management in different periods of managers’ functionality can be referred to.
This model by operating the latest methods of evaluating and analysis and engineering of managers’ functionality in several periods and picturing the consequences of their functions, make the organizations familiar with the characteristics of managers’ viewpoints and their taken decision that are based on these viewpoints. By comparison of these characteristics in different periods and influences and consequences of managers’ functionalities besides evaluation of managers’ approaches and capabilities, the gap between managers’ capabilities and accepting criteria in qualification standards of managers becomes clear.
William James believes that the greatest discovery of his generation was the fact that they could change their lives by changing their viewpoints and according to Dr. Norman Vincent Phil, we are not what we think we are but we are in the way that we think. This means we are the resultant of our cognitive, behavioral and emotional elements that form our ‘perceptions’.
In evaluating managers’ perceptions in developing program of executive managers’, according to this maxim that operation is influenced by perception, this can be concluded that managers’ perceptions and viewpoints is a picture of organizations programs in future and the deeper these viewpoints and design organizations goals and programs more practically, the more influential it is on organization successes and on the contrary the more limited the viewpoints, the more failure of organizations in achieving valuable results.
Jorge Bernard Shaw believes we had better to keep our perceptions clear and vivid as we are like a window that the world has to be looked through us. Accordingly, it can be taken how the role of mentalities can assist people in the discovery of realities and facts and is possessed in our wills as a hidden power. This is the power that shows its effects based on the picture that mind imagined it in a mental plan according to people’s positions in organizations and they try to actualize them with using their positions in organizations and operating suitable tools.
In surveying done over many successful mangers’ functionalities in big and reliable companies at international level, it is clear that these managers before being a manager are people of high creativity and capability of picturing things in their minds in a way that before putting things into practice, review their mental plans over and over then fulfill that with a practical approach.
In the way the role of managers’ look to such approaches can have an influential role in programming and fulfilling of those programs. Bill Gaits of Microsoft, Jack Welsh of General Electronics, Steve Jobs of Apple are instances of such managers.
5-1-Assessment of managers’ qualifications according to designed patterns in jobs qualification standards
Human resources are among the most valuable assets and capacities for programming and expansion of functionalities in organizations. These assets with a suitable programming and proper operating of it can realize organizations roles due to defined priorities in the development outlooks of organizations. Human recourses as a great capacity in organizations have potential capabilities and powers that with proper programming and operating of strengthening strategic tools of organizations can change them to dynamic. Achieving that needs a thorough understanding and recognition of people and preparing suitable conditions for effort and working. One thing that has to be studied here is the appointment of people to the positions that their capabilities, experiences and potentialities can prepare suitable conditions for the people’s and organizations development. This process enjoying a special place in strategic studies and programming in the field of human resources is studied with the concept of qualification and establishment of a technocrat system in organizations. This system has a complex structure of specialized managerial concepts in the field of programming and human resources expansion in organizations.
For depicting qualification model in organizations and choosing qualified people, there must be specialized acceptance standards and criteria. Criteria that by depicting acceptance standards in a qualification model express qualified staff’s individualistic characteristics and the way of their evaluation and assessing their individualistic skills before appointing them to a position. In this case designing qualification model in an organization specialized way needs the study of factors like organization nature, its mission, its organizational structures and the level of designing and setting organization qualification model.
Recognition of organizations with an approach of studying their functionality, structure and defined missions of them in each field needs to study awareness of set requisitions in organizations structures, activities varieties, diversity of activities, inter-organizational matrix between fields fitting defined missions in organizations structures, set standards in job definitions, missions, evaluation of each filed activities and other specialized factors before setting a qualification model and evaluating employees characteristics before appointing them to a position.
This approach according to cited requisiteness related to setting a job qualification model has to be regarded in a specialized way with operating of managerial updated standards. It is important that before any plan for setting qualification model for a position, first available infrastructures of organizations has to be studied. These infrastructures appear their effects in the way of designing organization structures, diagram of activities distributions in the frame of job-employee relationships, job/field of study similarities and … . Among factors that have to be studied in infrastructure surveying in the recognition phase of organization available situation are the set checklists in the area of employees’ evaluation with the approach of assessing individualistic skills before appointment and ways of this assessing of uniformed employees functionalities after their appointments. Assessing individualistic skills before appointment includes evaluations of mental ability, conceptual Skills, planning and organizing skills leadership and teamwork skills and enjoys its own specific characteristics in the fields of designing and operating of managerial tools. Subsequently, another point that has to be taken into account is the assessing of employees after their appointments by means of modern methods of evaluation and uniformed evaluation employees’ functionalities according to analysis, engineering and management of their functionalities in their appointed positions.
Another factor in designing jobs qualification model is the relationships between these jobs and defined approaches in the way of employees’ occupational promotion in future.
In evaluating managers’ qualifications according to set standards in jobs qualification models, we can record the results of our surveys in the qualification surveying center of organization by means of suitable tools. This center that has different sections is consisted of centers that can keep the results of managers’ qualification evaluations in each field specifically and in necessary cases by analyzing the data of each field put these data to the access of others. (Here ‘others’ means people and organizations that develop their managerial positions after receiving and surveying such data.)
6-1- Assessment and engineering of managers’ functionality based on jobs qualification standard patterns
Functionality engineering is a process dealing with the ways of processing and analysis of micro elements of employee’s functionalities with the approach of functionality statistical analyzing tools. Analyzing of influential micro elements on strengthening employees ‘functionalities with the approach of recognition of their strengths and failures and influential ways of innovations on employees and in programming and development of organizations functionalities are among factors that can be considered in engineering of a person’s, team or organization functionality. In evaluating and training future leaders (executive managers’ development) one of the factors that needs consideration in managers’ qualification evaluation is operating of analyzing ways of functionality engineering in studying managers’ effects when they had their managerial posts. The consequences of such analyses besides the results of the managers’ qualification evaluation based on accepted standards in jobs qualification model are among the data that can be taken into account in the managers’ qualification evaluating centers of organizations.
This approach adds humanistic values in structures, processes and parameters that are needed for keeping an organization or institute alive regardless to its real and legal entities and are among its achievements strengthening of thinking, expansion of managerial knowledge and individualistic capabilities can be referred to. This approach not only increases innovations, co-efficiencies and entrepreneurship in a company but also regulates many imbalances and creates social and individual peace of mind.
Correction and strengthening of managers’ perceptions besides expansion of flexibility and using processes that needs constantly reviewing and correction are among factors that increases the functionality engineering influences in evaluation of organization managers. This approach long with increasing of managers’ problem-finding, problem-solving with operating of results gained from managers’ functionality engineering cause the expansion of managers’ functionality strengthening programs.
In the program of executive managers promotion, one of the principles that has to be focused if the executive managers; functionality with the approach of operating of thoughtful and qualitative backgrounds and adjustability with the final goals designed in the organizations outlooks according to managers’ missions characteristics. In this way, operating of specialized methods for maximizing of consumption and supply of resources in a way that match with quantitative and qualitative parameters are among pre-requisitions needed to be studied. In evaluating of managers in a non-competitive structure, the role of consequences from the managers’ qualification assessments in their positions is the major element that has an influential role and great importance.