Untold Stories about Constitutional Monarchy
Author: Nahid Abqhari
Publisher: Bang-e Ney
Year of publishing: 2015/second edition
No. of Pages: 403
Size: 17× 25
◙Sample English text is available.
◙Copyright is available in all languages.
◙ The book was welcomed in academic centers in Iran.
About the book:
After Mozafaredin Shah’s death and by Mohammad Ali Shah’s sitting on the throne, Iran’s Constitutionalist Movement underwent some interruptions and challenges. Mohammad Ali Shah was after killing the constitutionalists and destruction of the Constitutionalist Movement. Among his actions for this purposes are cannonading the Majlis (parliament) and following and annoying of the constitutionalists. But the resistance against Mohammad Ali Shah and the period of Minor Despotism began soon and next year Tehran was conquered by the constitutionalists and Mohammad Ali Shah was dethroned. Years later he strived to gain the power with the support of former Soviet Union of Russia and with a fake name of Khalil Baghdadi but again he would be defeated and escaped. In campaign against Mohammad Ali Shah, a camp in the North under the command of ‘Motazed Soltan’ that was known as ‘Salar Motazed’ had a remarkable role. Salar Motazed in his own memoir reported the incidents of their fights against tyranny and what was happened in the North camp as an eye witness. This hand-written memoir many years later with the attempts of Salar Motazed’s grandchild, Nahid Abghodi, (the writer of the present book) was published in a form of a book. The book writer tries to explain and to clarify the formation of the Minor Despotism period, the Minor Despotism attempts and on the top of the Mohammad Ali Shah’s struggles against the Constitutionalist Movement and the constitutionalists’ resistances against him and the east-north camp clashes with Mohammad Ali Shah’s men and other incidents related to the east camp.
While compiling this book, the writer besides presenting some historical information of important period of Iran’s history and dealing with subjects like military powers and political situation of that period, shows a perspective of Iran’s power. This book has a deep glance to those situations and the formation of new Iran that started by overturning of Ghajarid dynasty and realization of the Constitutionalist Movement’s goals. Among the contents that are introduced for addressees’ awareness in this book are tactics and strategy of troops and military moralities and procedures of that time and lack of martial talents and lack of a central ruling power that leads to the breaking of the country’s political stability.
Table of contents:
Chapter 1: Opposition Appearance- Army Classification- Moving- Asanlu Champion- Aminalad War- Trial and Reward
Chapter 2: Firuzkuh- Gaduk Positions- Stud and jokes- Anxiety- Victory and sacking- Setting out
Chapter 3: Stopping- Waiting- Fun- Ambush- Second Clamor- Last Clash
Chapter 4: Consultation and Escaping- Sanctuary- People’s Clamor- Hope- A charlatan- Frightening News
Chapter 5: Russia’s Deadline- Three islands- Survival- Encountering- The Run away
This book also has an historical introduction of the writer’s biography and useful appendix.
About the Author:
Nahid Abqhari (1967-Iran)
Nahid Abqhari is a famous Iranian Rumi researcher who has conducted extensive research in human sciences. Due to deep devotion to Jalal ad-din Rumi the writer has spent most her time to introduce the great mystical scholar and his outstanding works to the Iranians and to the world at large. By carefully studying Rumi’s works and the books written about Rumi, the author has produced a series of valuable books about the great mystic scholar.
Her book entitled ‘Description of Mathnavi’ containing 6 thousand lines is a comprehensive commentary on Rumi. In another book entitled ‘A Spiritual Study of Stories of Mathnavi’ Abqhari has collected a lovely summary of almost all the stories, parables, anecdotes and allegories in the Mathnavi. Beside ‘Stories of Rumi’s Mathnavi’ which has been described above, the author has written two other books entitled ‘Articles about Mathnavi’ and ‘The Story of the Reed’. Nahid Abqhari is living in Mashhad and is compiling other books of commentary about Rumi.
-Ancient Tales(4 Vols.)
-Spiritual travel with Mathnavi stories’
-Commentary on Mathnavi.(6 Vols.)
-The Stories in Rumi
-Untold Stories about Constitutional monarchy
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 6 August 1906 gained victory after a set of political and social events. Mozafar Al-Din Shah deceased a short time after issuing Constitutional Decree and signing The Constitution and delegated his post to his son, Mohammad Ali Shah. Mohammad Ali Shah, who was a disciple of dictatorship culture, never endured the constitution and its affiliates after acceding to the throne, and despite apparent measures in agreement with the constitution, did his best to annihilate the constitution and constitutionalists in the first months of his reign. The Constitution, National Council House, segregation of powers, accountability of the minister, as the most important executive personality, against people and the parliament, and, most importantly, the lack of power in executive affairs as the most important achievements of the constitution, were as bones in the throat of Mohammad Ali Shah. Upon these reasons, he took measures to annihilate the constitution movement. First, he appointed Amin Al- Sultan as the prime minister who planned to neutralize the constitution movement; when the constitutionalists killed Amin Al-Sultan, Mohammad Ali decided to put an end to the movement publicly.
The most evident action of him in this regard, was to cannonade the inchoate National Council House and erasing constitutionalists. In 22 June 1908, he shut the parliament down and through killing and suppressing constitutionalists’ created an era in the Iranian history which is known as the “Minor Tyranny”. In minor tyranny era, though freedom seekers and constitutionalists were strictly tortured and pursued, but never surrendered. The resistance in various provinces of Iran was more evident, especially in Azerbaijan, Gilan, Bakhtiari, and Isfahan that played larger part in the formation of constitution. The constitutionalists in Gilan and Bakhtiari and then Azerbaijan, moved toward Tehran in order to destroy the “Minor Tyranny”.
The harmonious and simultaneous entry of Bakhtiary and Gilani forces into Tehran was a cause to defeat the forces of the tyranny and Tehran was seized by the constitutionalists (14 July 1909).After conquering Tehran, they founded a council as their first measure about the status of the country. This council included 500 constitution movement leaders. As its first decision, this council ousted Mohammad Ali for treachery and his 12 year-old son, Ahmad Mirza, was appointed the king of Iran. The ousted Mohammad Ali Shah did not endure the decisions of the council, leaved Iran pursuant to the next decision of the council, and migrated to Russia. In the last months of 1910, he attempted to return to his post as the king of Iran after travelling several European countries and talking with one of the representatives of Tsarist Russia government in Vienna, ensuring political, financial, and military support of Russia government, as well as relying on the efforts of many internal anti-constitution opponents. To do this, he entered western Mazandaran province via Russia with luxurious clothes and the fake name of “Khalil Baghdadi” and hiding a large amount of ammunitions in mineral water boxes, he aimed at leading anit- constitution military operations with the cooperation of his brother, Shoa al-Saltaneh (the former Iranian military commander). When he moved toward Iran, Salar al-Dovlah, his other brother, entered western Iran via Russia and Ottoman borders. Salar al – Dovla gathered military forces, defeated state troops, and conquered a number of cities including Kermanshah, Boroojerd, Nahavand, and Hamedan.
Mohammad Ali Shah after arriving at Gomish Hill in the Mazandaran Province (now Golestan), gathered a troop consisted of a multitude of torkmans and nomads of Mazandaran and Astar Abad and armed them with the help of Shoa al-Saltaneh and Arshad al-Dovlah as well as some of courtiers and tyrants. Then, he divided this force into two gangs. He dispatched one gang, presided by Shoa al- Saltaneh, to western Mazandaran, so that they move toward Tehran via Firooz Kooh; the other gang, presided by Arshad al- Dovlah, was sent to Shahrood, so that they arrive at Tehran at the same time the other gang arrives there. Mohammad Ali Shah personally joined Shoa al-Saltaneh camp a few days later.
Early military victories of the affiliates of tyranny system as well as their progress in western and northern regions and also rumors of the cooperation of General Mohammad Vali Khan Tonkaboni, the prime minister, with the ousted Mohammad Ali Shah, caused parliament leaders and grandees of constitutionalism to take necessary measures to fight against invading forces. Among these measures were the ousting of General Tonkaboni and appointing Samsam al- Saltaneh Bakhtiari in this post and dispatching three military troops to three fronts in northern, eastern, and western Iran.
The western camp consisted of Bakhtiari warriors with the commandership of persons like General Mohtasham and General Bahador; the northern camp included Bakhtiari and Gilani warriors, which Mirza Kuchak Khan Jangali was among them. The commandership of this camp had been delegated to Andol Hossein Khan Moaz al- Sultan Rashti with the alias name “General Mohee”, was sent to Hamedan and Mazandarn. Finally, the western camp, presided by Yefrem Khan Armany, had the mission to fight against Arshad al- Dovlah in Shahrood. In western front, after many courageous actions they managed to defeat Salar al- Dovlah who had dominated large parts of western Iran regions and had prepared his troops to attack Tehran. In addition, the forces under the commandership of Yafram Khan Armani manage to overcome Rashid al-dovlah and his troops that had progress to 48 kilometers of Tehran. They arrested Arshad al- Dovlah and executed him by shooting.
Northern camp forces that had been divided into first and second camps, at first defeated and executed Rashid al- Sultan Osanloo who had supported Mohammad Ali Shah in Amin Abad Battle; then, in The Battle of Firoozkooh Neck, pushed back the forces under Mohammad Ali Shah and Shoa al- Saltaneh. Despite failure in this battle, Mohammad Ali Shah did not resist and started gathering new forces and prepared them to move toward Tehran because he hoped Arshad al- Dovlah and Salar al- Dovlah would succeed. He was disappointed upon hearing about the defeat of Arshad al- Dovlah and Salar al- Dovlah and returned to Gomish Hill.The northern camp, after its victories, moved toward Sari and Ashraf of Behshahr to follow Mohammad Ali Shah; but for some reasons, inappropriate decisions, as well as some measures of Russians, was defeated by tyranny forces and disintegrated. A number of the forces of northern camp such as its commander, General Mohee, fled and some other forces who were trapped, sit in the Russian borrow bank in Mazandaran to keep their lives.These people went to Anzali Port via Gaz Port by sea and then moved toward Tehran.Moatamed al- Sultan- Salar Moatazed, one of the commanders of this camp has described the mission of northern camp in a diary entitled “The Eastern Camp”. This book is the only exclusive and detailed source about “The Northern Camp” [Eastern] in which military details has been narrated from the viewpoint of an eyewitness.
Mirza Mohammad Ali Khan Yavar, who later received colonel rank and selected “Vajed Samiee” as his family name in Reza Shah Period, was a graduate of Turkey Military College in artillery field and later was appointed as the commander of Fars Artillery, Central Cossack Brigade Artillery, and deputy of Khorasan Army. He attended northern camp as the military deputy general and the chief of artillery and noted down what he had heard and seen in this mission in 1911. This diary includes an introduction; five chapters consisted of 33 articles, and a conclusion.The author in the introduction examines the chaotic circumstances of Iran and discusses the formation of Minor Tyranny era, bloodshed and insurgencies by the rebels, incompetency of authorities, the efforts of constitutionalism opponents, and interference and bullying of foreign forces. The first chapter of this book entitled “The Emergence of Reaction”, deals with attempts of the ousted Mohammad Ali Shah, Salar al- Dovlah, Arshad al- Dovlah, and other agents on tyranny front in Mazandaran, Kermanshah, Shahrood, as well as the efforts of constitution government to fight against them. The second chapter considers the struggles of northern camp with Rashid al- Sultan and Amin Abad Battle that resulted in the defeat and death of this person. In the third chapter, the author explains FirrozKooh Battle and the set of battles leading to the defeat of Arshad al- Dovlah in which he was executed by shooting. The fourth chapters is dedicated to the defeat of northern camp forces and their retreat as well as sit in of a number of them in the borrowed branch of a Russian bank in Mazandaran and the actions of the forces depending on Mohammad Ali Shah. The fifth chapter while discusses the ultimatum of Russia to Iran, has mentioned the fate of sit in forces in the borrowed bank branch and their return v from Gaz Port to Anzali Port and then Tehran, as well as the fate of the fugitives.The manuscript version of this book was made available to me by Ms. Nahid Abghari, the daughter of Nosrat al- Moluk Vajed Samiee son of Colonel Mohammad Ali Vajed Samiee, the author of The Eastern Camp. As it seems necessary to explain historical issues to shed light on part of Iranian history, a decision was made to publish this book by the efforts of Ms. Abghari who is a prominent author and scholar. We hope that this detailed military report can be useful for those interested in Iranian history, especially those enquiring into constitutionalism era.
The Emergence of Reaction
The story begins from the middle of July 1911, when the ousted Mohammad Ali Mirza Qajar along with a number of his companions changed their clothes and thus returned to the northern boundaries that had been freed recently. He stepped in Gomish Hill that was one of the important ports of Torkman Desert in the southeastern shore of Caspian Sea situated in Gorgan River estuary, which the dwelling and residence of Ja’far-Bai tribe.The prominent men accompanying him were his brother, prince Malek Mansoor Mirza Shoa al- Saltaneh and one of the generals of tyranny system period, i.e. the major general Alikhan Arshad al- Dovlah. There were other persons who were considered of the outcast of the former court, who were lower in rank and were considered as companions. When the news arrived, there was a strange tumult and an intense thrill in Tehran among courtiers and parliamentary administrations. As far as the news was not divulged in governmental administrations, it produces an stunning silence in nobles; when it was divulged to the common people, a public uprising started; though, there were a few groups happy to see this situation and transferred this tiding to each other with much enthusiasm. However, the majority of masses expressed their grief upon hearing the news and declared his return with hate and fear and excited and upset each other. Now, it should be considered which behavior had been declared by the Qajar king in the country who has caused such hatred that upon hearing the news of his entry to boundaries, such a tumult is generated among people. The ousted king, Mohammad Ali Mirza Qajar, was the sixth king of Qajar Sultans dynasty and the second Sultan of the Iranian Constitutionalist Government who after the demise of his father, Mozaffar al- Din Shah Qajar, in 1906 acceded to the throne when he was 35 years- old and almost three years later was deprived of the throne and ousted for treachery. This king acceded to the throne when Iran entered a new era. Because of youthful pride and ignorance, he was interested in lechery of previous sultans and considered the current state of managing the country in contradiction with his whims and thus he decided to dismantle the rudiments of the state. However, that period was not appropriate to do this at all, because in the period of his ancestor, Naser al- Din Shah, people were tired of the cruelty and violation of Shah and state and military officials, misconduct of administrations, disobedience of rulers, and the lack of justice administration and laws. People lost their patience and rebelled in the period of his father’s rule, Mozaffar al- Din Shah. Consequently, they achieved constitution blessing and the document for the freedom of people and managed to establish Justice Administration and National Research Center. Because they were afraid of the reluctance and acceptance of the new king, were always cautious and alarmed of his treacherous plans. Finally, they made the king sign it and set their foot in reformation route; but after a while, the young king wanted to disturb the basis of the rule of the country either due to his own intention, stimulation of the greedy courtiers, or foreign or domestic malign advisors. Apparently or inwardly, he planned many schemes to generate struggles between governmental executives and administrative officials and in the second year of his rule, i.e. 1908, bombarded and destroyed the National Council House. People were enraged with the bombardment, bloody events, and other aggressive and despotic actions of the king and then uprising started. The uprising first was started in Azerbaijan and resulted in adverse struggles. The intensity of the rise of Tabriz freedom-seekers was to the extent that it disentangled and distressed Shah Army. This rise was under Satar Khan and Bagher Khan, two valiant liberal men that had publicly declared their opposition to the government and managed to influence other near and remote regions. In this regard, other provinces also expressed their agreement to the courageous enterprise of nationalists and obeyed the Fatwas of religious leaders who had protested against Shah and gathered military forces and stimulated feelings of common people to resist against Shah and his followers. Thus, two large important forces were formed in two important regions of the country in a short time. The first was in Isfahan and consisted of Bakhtiari Tribe and freedom- seeking people and the second was in Gilan and included freedom-seekers of Azerbaijan, Rasht, and Caucasian Committechi, which was a combination of Muslims, Armenians, and Georgians. They raised to secure freedom, and after telecommunications and negotiations with the headquarter, when they found the kind incapable of changing this relationship, surged toward the center from south and north to demolish the basics of tyranny. Subsequently, they managed to conquer Tehran in 1287 with the help of secret central nationalists and the combatants of capital and succeeded though the old nationalistic will. Shah sought asylum in British Embassy to not to be arrested and sentenced. The Russian government that due to its alliance with UK could not or did not want to interfere in the internal affairs of Iran, took the responsibility to protect its refugee along with its ally. The bloodsheds, ruins, and asylum of Shah, caused the nationalists to dethrone and oust him unanimously; then, according an official contract concluded between the new government and the embassies, it was stipulated that Shah be outcast from Iran with the help of British and Russian governments and reside in Russia with his reactions companions. When the articles of the protocol between pro- Shah governmental representatives and the representatives of state officials was signed, Shah exited Iran with his companions. He resided in Odsa, a Russian commercial port in Black Sea, in a place specified by the Russian government; Ahmad Shah Qajar who was the government crown prince and the senior son of the ousted king, acceded to the throne according to the constitution of Iran; but, due to minority, at first Azed al-Molk Qajar was appointed as viceroy by a board formed temporarily for managing internal regulations. He did not last long and after a relatively short time demised. After him, Valla Hazrat Naser al- Molk Hamedani was appointed as viceroy by the absolute majority of National Council House. The second round of National Council, which performed in agreement with constitutional principles, started legislating and correcting the ruins of the past; it did not achieve much success, however, that the ominous cry of the emergence of reaction echoed in skies and important pillars of the country started trembling and once again national achievement and freedom faced many difficult barriers.
In fact, Mohammad Ali Shah was a grudging imprudent person who was trapped in the stimulations and schemes of courtiers, targeted by the punishment arrow of fate due to ominous advises of hostile greedy courtiers and his own wrongs and was humiliated and abased forever. Though he should have been alarmed of his primary action that had a disastrous ending, but he was so bloodthirsty and haughty and had established the base of his deeds on misconduct to an extent that not a tiny amount of good will was inside him so that it may lead him to the goal. Now, his only aim of returning to power was to regain the throne and rule who deemed the procurement of forces necessary for achieving this goal and considered relying of Torkmans according to his best interest; in implementing his schemes, he set his ancestors’ recipe as his example, because Qajars were a foreign tribe residing in AstarAbad and in Zandieh Period were a chaotic situation pervaded Iran, attempted to secure the throne. A number of them struggled with Zandieh but did nothing until Agha Mohammad Khan son of Mohammad Hassan Khan, one of the prominent men of the tribe, attacked Astar Abad and Mazandaran after the death of his father and Karim Khan Zand in 1783 and then conquered Tehran and declare it as the capital of his rule. In 1795, in a view of such a record he expected Torkman tribes to support him, but with respect to irrational actions he had committed when he was the crown prince if Tabriz as well as anti- nationalistic performance during his rule, it is evident that when reaction emerged again, it hurt public feelings and they started finding means for fighting against him and saving themselves. The rudiments were furnished as follows:
When the news of his entry to the boundaries was disseminated in official and unofficial circles of Tehran, exciting strange feeling appeared. Parliamentary administrations and cabinet of ministers, which were distressed due to fear and horror, tried to take measures to prevent his potential actions.The cabinet of Sepahdar Azam due to dispersion of votes and heterogeneous members was unstable and critical. The majority of ministers did not assist in the progress on national and state affairs and, like other cabinets of constitutionalism era, dealt with state affairs with negligence. Moreover, they put much effort in forming and reinforcing state military power that were as the soul of the country, and had left most provinces and regions without rulers and in a chaotic situation. Because of all of this, they had not have a convincing answer for the nation and, therefore, after consecutive interpellations, it received the vote of no confidence and collapsed.After the fall of Sepahdar cabinet, a board composed of homogenous members was introduced, the prime minister of which was Samasam al- Saltaneh Bakhtiari, the former War Minister of the previous cabinet. Then, according to a law ratified by the parliament immediately, martial law was declared and the entire country came under the traditional rule of military power. Because the main opinions about founding this cabinet that was done with the help of parties, was essentially to defend national rights, in the first program of the new board of ministers the method for fighting reactionist forces was considered, the decision was made, and a verdict was issued to enforce it.Now we had better consider the condition of the state and nation that in those days was not very promising:
Internal affairs: the most important thing that was not in a normal condition, was the internal affairs of Iran, because there had appeared between members of parliament intense opposition and sects formed under various titles and had dominated policy pillars under the name of “Moderation”, “democrat”, etc. to the extent that all their actions and thoughts were contradictory so that could not be expressed. The relationship of national representatives board and board of ministers, that is, executive and legislative branches, were not united or regulated because of these favoritisms. Due to these reasons, cabinets would experience consecutive crises and demolished. In fact, cabinet change was a means for reformation and was just a play, without any essence that killed any hope for reformation. Favoritism had expanded from National Council Home to the struggles between parties in governmental administrations and was the cause of the opposition of ministries against each other. Moreover, it slowed down the affairs of the state and delayed administrative works. The residents of provinces were trapped in this maze and superseded each other in this struggle.
Most individuals, who possessed any influence or power, did not obey the government in near or remote distances. The roads and roads were horrible and insecure passages. The planes of Kashan to Jandaq were chaotic due to the looting of Nayeb Hossein Kashi. Khar and Veramin were under the influence and ravage of Rashid al- Sultan and Osanlu Riders and lacked any order or security. The influential agents of Mazandaran were outlaw and disobedient. Fars was burning in the fire of seduction and revolt. Azerbaijan and Khorasan were chaotic and disordered. Lorestan and Kordestan seemed most disarranged and disturbed. Astar Abad was also full of disarray and seduction. Apart from the mentioned regions, the entire country was disturbed due to absence of rulers and military and governmental power and the masses were in an adverse condition and were dissatisfied. The four corners of the country, i.e. east, west, north, south, were experiencing crises and from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf and from Iraqi boundaries to that of Baluchestan and Afghan, which was under the rule of Iranian government and the place for millions of Iranian urban dwellers and nomads, no one held himself accountable. Now, this disarrayed and disordered territory was the plaything of the whims of a bunch of haughty, ambitious, egotist, and officials. A country in which there were no safe and secure place other than Baharestan and Golestan that were the headquarter of executive and legislative powers. The sole purpose of Valla Hazrat Naser al- Molk Abu al-Ghasem Khan Hamedani, the new viceroy, was probably dictatorship and establishing the same time-worn method for managing the country affairs that with the lapse of time the conditions of Iran aggravated and made people dissatisfied. But before his hidden intentions were to be divulged, those waiting for this imbalance, seized the opportunity and caused disastrous events with the help of their agents.
Foreign affairs: the landscape of foreign policy was dimmer than the internal condition; because in the commencement of securing freedom, due to the horrible wars of Tabriz and the famine in Azerbaijan, its residents were dying from hunger. Some Russian soldiers came Tabriz under the pretext of carrying purveyance and then resided temporarily under the name of protecting foreign nationals. Iran repeatedly demanded their restitution politely, but they delayed to restitute them with promise and subterfuge. Moreover, in all struggles related to the regions under influence as well as the 1907 Christian Pact of neighbor countries, political operation would encounter many problems; however, Iran had amorous relationships with the British and Russian governments, but the politics of policy board seemed to be dreadful and risky and was not much promising.
Military power: the potential that appeared in this period in Tehran with the discretion of Iranian authorities and was known as Reform Army, had been established based on the principles of foreign policy in the second road of constitutionalism in 1909. Its foundation was to reform masses and soldier quota of the residents, some of which had been called to service and recruited. It included two regiments of infantry, the members of which were lesser than a complete regiment, i.e. about 1600 soldiers, all of them had long guns. There were major shortcomings in cavalry and there was nearly an incomplete squadron that included two groups each composed of 100 soldiers. They were regiments of cavalries having short guns. The artillery was not in a better situation, because it was composed of an incomplete regiment with three batteries, each containing three cannons. These batteries included Shinder desert and mountain cannons as well as some Austrian system vehicles, i.e., mountain Amacious. The operators of the Amacious system were 300 cannoneers. But regarding horses, mules, and other requirements faced many deficiencies. To this we should add 100 sentinels of Royal Guards as well about 150,000 old and young sword- forger or court authors, supreme chiefs, low-rank members of administrations, and branches of the war ministry; altogether, the military power of the capital amounted to about 2000 persons. Apart from this, there was an old incomplete Cossack brigade with auto-5 Russian guns under the commandership and supervision of Russian officers. There were 1000 to 1500 forces in this brigade including various infantry, cavalry, and artillery queues; however, this section of governmental power, having cooperated with the ousted king in bombarding the parliament and strived to destroy the utopia of the nation, knew that people do not trust them and were always observed by the new executors with hatred and suspicion.
In addition to these official military forces, which under the command of the War Ministry were present in the capital and ready for service, a number of infantry and cavalry gendarmes, amounting to 2000 infantry and cavalry police officers for governmental administrations, about 500 forces for the disciplinary, security cavalries and few newly- established road cavalries for roads and streets, and about 700 individuals under the command of state affairs were in service. Moreover, Muslim and Armani combatants along with a group of Bakhtiari cavalries serviced under the command of nationalist leaders and amounted to about 3000 individuals. Thus, the entire official and unofficial forces of the army of capital was about 9,000. Though garrisons of provinces, supply forces, road and street security forces, provincial irregular sentinels, border guards and others, who were dispersed across the country based on old principles and methods, were considered as armed governmental forces, but the central military force is the symbol of sovereignty that was disarrayed and disheveled in those days. Thus, we cannot consider forces of provinces that were faced with local struggles, because large parts of country were surrounded by armed stubborn nomads from every direction and it was necessary to reinforce the forces in order to maintain the influence of central power authorities and in emergencies, it is not possible to call the mentioned forces. It is clear that such a dispersed army could not secure the rights of millions of people and at the same time protect thousand kilometers of a vast and tumultuous country and manage it with the best performance possible. Especially in crises times and when unexpected seductions occurred, only God could help overcoming it.
Weapons: the supply of the government included some short and long Lebels, which were the same auto-3 French guns for soldiers. There were also 2000 short and long Verendels. Moreover, hundreds of Jackson, Manisker, Shasbo, Martin, and about 5000 old guns stacked in the store, were heaped, outworn by rust and termite and seemed like old iron pieces. There were also a number of auto-5 Russian guns with many cartridges bought by the cabinet of Sepahdar Azam. There are a number of cannon vehicles including Macious, Shinder, and Monison, which is not worth mentioning, because the low number of heavy firearms compared to light one was evident.
The treasury of the government: the only hope was the existence of liquidity and thanks God that due to a new bond with the amount of 3,500,000 tomans, there was a significant cash in the treasury of the government; but it should be noted that the mentioned bond had to be managed by the American Mr. Shuster, who was the chief of Iranian treasury with the permission of governmental executives. He had absolute powers to regulate Iranian financial affairs and to balance earnings and expenditures of treasury sources of cash according to Article 23 by the permission of the representatives of people and the new government. This might be the cause of this issue taking place and the emergence of reactionism. They determined to correct the finance and recruit American counselors to keep the borrowed cashes in the treasury of the government as a fund for the nation; but the political enemies of Iran who sought means to consume up the national sources of cash and were reluctant to reform the finance of the state, tried to prevent the new government to have a fund, so that it could not manage military and state affairs and recruit forces.